Effectiveness of Kangaroo Mother Care in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality among Preterm Neonates on Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Background. Prematurity is a major cause of neonatal death. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the recognized initial intervention among preterm neonates in respiratory distress. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) may help improve neonatal outcomes.
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of KMC in reducing morbidity and mortality among preterm neonates on CPAP via RAM nasal cannula (nCPAP).
Methods. A prospective, non-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted on eligible preterm neonates requiring nCPAP due to respiratory distress. They were randomly allocated to either KMC (n=35) or conventional care groups (n=35). Outcome measures included duration of nCPAP and oxygen support, physiologic parameters, morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay.
Results. The durations of nCPAP and oxygen support were both significantly shorter in the KMC group. Morbidities (air leak syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis) were also significantly lower in the KMC group. Although the mortality rate and the hospital stay were lower in the KMC group, these were not statistically significant.
Conclusion. KMC effectively decreased the duration of nCPAP and oxygen support, as well as the incidence of neonatal morbidities. There were trends towards reduced mortality and length of hospital stay in the neonates who received KMC.