Comparison of the Physicochemical and Pharmacopeial Properties of starches Obtained from Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco, Nephelium lappaceum l., and Mangifera indica l. seeds with Corn starch
Objective. This study was conducted to characterize and compare the physicochemical and pharmacopoeial properties of starches isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco (marang), Nephelium lappaceum L. (rambutan), and unripe green Mangifera indica L. (mango) with corn starch, as possible sources of pharmaceutical grade starch.
Methods. The starch from the seeds of these fruits was isolated and characterized through their physicochemical (organoleptic characteristics, percent yield, amylose-amylopectin ratio, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, solubility, swelling power, and viscosity) and pharmacopoeial properties (identification test, pH, loss on drying, and limit of iron). Morphology of the granules was also assessed.
Results. The physicochemical properties showed that amylose content of the seed starches was significantly lower (p=0.001) and amylopectin content significantly higher (p=0.001) than the native high amylose corn starch. The lower values of bulk and tapped densities, and high values in compressibility index and Hausner ratio of the seed starches compared to corn starch may be due to their smaller particles. The results of the pharmacopoeial characterization showed compliance with the United States Pharmacopeia's (USP) acceptable limits, except for the pH of marang seeds.
Conclusion. The starches isolated from the fruit seeds have unique properties, but only rambutan seed starch has the most desirable physicochemical and pharmacopoeial properties that is comparable with corn starch. Rambutan seeds could be utilized as a source of starch for pharmaceutical applications.