The Association Between Periodontitis and Diabetes Among Filipino Dental School Patients: A Retrospective Case-Control Study
Objective. The association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus varies based on geographical location, and there are limited investigations on the relationship of the two chronic diseases among Philippine subjects. This study aimed to determine the association between periodontitis and diabetes among Filipino dental school patients.
Methods. In this retrospective case-control study, the periodontal conditions and diabetic statuses of all patients who sought treatment at the Dental College’s Oral Medicine clinic within two academic years were reviewed. The prevalence of diabetes among 715 cases of periodontitis was compared to the prevalence among 834 control patients without periodontitis. Odds ratios (OR) were computed using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, educational attainment, and smoking status.
Results. The overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus for all patients was 3.10%. Patients with periodontitis had a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes at 5.73% compared to control subjects without periodontitis, whose diabetes prevalence was recorded at 0.84% (P<0.001). A significant association was observed between periodontitis and diabetes, with an unadjusted OR=7.19. After logistic regression analysis to control confounding variables, the adjusted OR was found to be 3.05 (95% confidence interval = 1.27 to 7.31; P=0.012).
Conclusion. The prevalence and odds of having diabetes are significantly higher among Filipino dental school patients with periodontitis, compared to patients without periodontitis. These results provide evidence to support an association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus in this representative sample of the Filipino population.