Benefits and Risks of Prolonged Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis among People Living with HIV in Immune Reconstitution Phase: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Objectives. To determine the effect of prolonged cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CP) in reducing hospitalization and opportunistic infection rates among people living with HIV (PLHIV) with CD4 count >200 cells/mm3.
Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 349 medical charts of PLHIV with CD4 count (or T-cell count) of >200 cells/mm3 enrolled in an HIV treatment hub in Manila, Philippines, from January 2004 to July 2016. Demographic, clinical characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Descriptive statistics were generated. Chi-square test for two proportions was done to compare the difference in outcomes between the CP and non-CP groups.
Results. Of the 349 patients, majority (96.6%) were male with a mean age of 28 years (SD 6.4) and mean CD4 count of 373 cells/mm3 (SD 148). CP was continued in 103 patients (29.5%) with mean duration of 1.7 (SD 1.9) years. The prolonged CP group had more events of adverse drug reactions (p<0.001), specifically minor cutaneous reactions (p<0.001) and immunologic failures (p<0.001), compared to the non-CP group. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of hospitalization, PJP (Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia), non-PJP, other respiratory illnesses, diarrhea, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, stage 3/4 events and mortality, between the prolonged CP and non-CP groups.
Conclusion. We did not observe any additional benefit in giving prolonged CP among PLHIV with CD4 count >200 cells/mm3. More adverse effects were also seen in the CP group.