Anti-urolithiatic Activity of Sambong (Blumea balsamifera) Extract in Ethylene Glycol-induced Urolithiatic Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Objective. The study aimed to determine if Blumea balsamifera inhibits calcium oxalate stone formation in the kidneys through determination of the number of calcium oxalate stones in the renal cortex and the percent mass of calcium oxalate.
Methods. Post-test only control group design was used using five treatment groups with placebo as the negative control, potassium citrate as the positive control, and 50%, 100%, and 200% sambong treatment. Urolithiasis was induced through ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride. Each treatment group was administered its corresponding treatment solution once daily for twenty-one days. Histopathologic examination and kidney homogenate analysis were done to determine the degree of deposition of calcium oxalate stones in renal tissues and the oxalate content, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Gabriel's Pairwise Comparisons Test.
Results. The 100% sambong treatment group showed the least mean number of stones while the positive control and 50% sambong treatment group exhibited the highest anti-urolithiatic activity in terms of oxalate content of the kidney homogenate.
Conclusion. It can be concluded from the study that Blumea balsamifera inhibits calcium oxalate stone formation in the kidneys with the 100% and 50% sambong treatment most effective in decreasing number of stones and oxalate content of the kidney homogenate, respectively.