Factors Associated with Anemia among Selected Women of Reproductive Age in Tondo, Manila, Philippines

  • Ana Kriselda B. Rivera University of the Philippines Manila
  • Ernani R. Bullecer
  • Angelica Anne E. Latorre
Keywords: anemia, hemoglobin, iron, women of reproductive age


Background. Anemia is the most common medical disorder throughout a woman’s life. Given that anemia during reproductive years impacts future gestational and perinatal health, then any factors possibly associated with the disorder should be studied and ultimately addressed.

Objective. This study aimed to determine anemia prevalence and its associated factors (socio-demographic,
lifestyle, knowledge, dietary and biochemical) among a select group of women of reproductive age (WRA) living in Tondo, Manila.

Methods. This is an analytic cross-sectional study that utilized interviewer-assisted questionnaire and blood
extraction to collect data from 166 WRA (18-40 years).

Results. Anemia prevalence among the study participants was found to be 9.0%. In terms of associated factors,
being anemic was found to be more likely if the WRA has these factors: higher parity, graduated from college;
unemployed; living in a low-income household; took iron supplements, and; have low knowledge on iron. On the other hand, increase in age, increase intake of heme iron and non-heme iron food sources, and an increase in blood ferritin concentration were factors that made anemia less likely among WRA.

Conclusion. Examining these factors provides insight into the multicausal nature of anemia. Thus, prevention
and control programs should focus on the contribution and interrelatedness of these factors to address anemia.