Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Quality Assessment of Ice Blocks Sold in Selected Wet Markets in Manila, Philippines

  • Leandro F. Salazar
  • Trishia Alexis I. Alvez
  • Janine Marie B. Balbedina
  • Javier Alfonso A. Torres
  • Ivanah Y. Tupaz
  • Marian Fe Theresa C. Lomboy
  • Romeo R. Quizon
Keywords: physico-chemical analysis, microbiological analysis, Escherichia coli


Objective. The study aimed to determine the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of ice blocks sold in selected wet markets located in the city of Manila.

Methods. Twenty-eight samples were collected from three markets. Microbiological quality was analyzed in terms of the presence or absence of coliforms with E. coli as indicator organism. Physico-chemical quality was determined by measuring turbidity, apparent color, pH, iron, and residual chlorine. Measurements obtained were compared with the 2007 Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW).

Results. Results showed that all samples tested positive for coliforms while 25 out of the 28 samples were positive for E. coli. Mean turbidity was 2.74 ± 3.68 NTU; for both apparent color and iron tests, all samples complied with the PNSDW standard limit set; mean pH was 6.15 ± 0.64; and mean residual chlorine was 0.06 ± 0.02 mg/L. Average values of apparent color and iron comply with the PNSDW standards. Six out of 28 samples had turbidity values exceeding the standards. All samples were found to have residual chlorine levels below the standards.

Conclusion. Ice in markets do not comply with key 2007 PNSDW standards and findings warrant strict compliance of ice quality from manufacturers to the point of distribution to protect consumer health.


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