Risk factors of developing Pneumonia Among Confirmed Measles Cases
Background. Deaths may occur due to complications of measles. The most common measles complication is pneumonia and accounts for most measles-related deaths.
Objective. The study aimed to identify risk factors for developing pneumonia among measles cases.
Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted using measles surveillance data from an outbreak in the Philippines from January 2013 to December 2014. Data on age, sex, area of residence, clinical manifestations, receipt of measles vaccine, and other exposure variables were obtained and analyzed using logistic regression.
Results. Approximately 25,166 confirmed measles cases were included in the study where 16% had pneumonia. Potential risk factors identified in the development of pneumonia among confirmed measles cases were younger age (<5 years = OR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.81,3.42; 5-14 years = OR 2.34, 95% CI: 1.64,3.33), resident of Mindanao (OR 2.18, 95% CI: 1.74,2.74), presence of cough (OR 5.51, 95% CI: 2.04,14.86), presence of conjunctivitis (OR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.11,1.55), and being admitted to hospital (OR 3.16, 95% CI: 2.57,3.90). Confirmed measles cases with receipt of measles containing vaccine (MCV) (OR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.63,0.87) were found to be less likely to have pneumonia.
Conclusion. These risk factors help identify cases requiring prompt management to reduce morbidity and mortality in any future measles outbreaks.