Analysis of Human Error as a Factor in Road Crash in Metro Manila (2005-2015)
Introduction. In the Philippines, data on road traffic injuries show that road injury is the 11th leading cause of premature deaths in the Philippines. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.24 million die globally due to road traffic crashes.
Objectives. This study aimed to show the trend of the road crash situation in Metro Manila, Philippines, over eleven years (2005–2015) and to analyze human error and other associated hazard factors for road crashes.
Methods. This study is a secondary analysis of an 11-year database culled from 2005–2015, for Metro Manila, Philippines. The variables included road crash classification, incidence over months and time of the day, road crash disaggregated by location, region, and city, and type of vehicle. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the incidence of a road crash, road crash fatalities, and risk factors associated with a road crash in Metro Manila.
Results. The incidence of road crashes in Metro Manila has increased from 65,111 in 2005 to 95,615 in 2015. Fatalities also increased from 348 to 536. The most predominant type of vehicle involved in road crashes were cars from 46% to 67%, followed by jeepneys, vans, and motorcycles. The most commonly reported human errors were speeding, inattentive and bad turning. The reported percentage of speeding from 2005–2010 ranged between 32% and 58%. In 2014, speeding (96%) was the most reported human error among the other reported errors; such as inattentiveness (range, 28 to 41%) and bad turning (0.6% and 33%). Fatigue and traffic violation made up 0.02% to 0.45% of the reported human factors of road crash-related hospitalization cases in Metro Manila for the period. Suspected alcohol use accounted for 0.04% to 4.57% of the human errors reported. For non-fatal and fatal crashes, the associated human errors were suspected alcohol use, inattentiveness, and speeding. The highest adjusted residual for both fatal and non-fatal (injurious) crashes was for inattentiveness. Human error was associated with years, suggesting that for some years, the number of crashes caused by human errors is significantly higher than expected. Alcohol-suspected crashes are significantly higher than expected for 2005 and 2011, with 2011 having the highest adjusted residual. Inattentiveness-caused crashes were significantly higher than expected for years 2005 to 2010, with 2007 having the highest adjusted residual. Bad turning was significantly higher from 2005 to 2007; while disobedience was significantly higher for 2005 to 2008. Speeding was significantly higher than expected from 2005 to 2010.
Conclusion. There is a need to address the public health concern posed by road crashes in Metro Manila, as well as to rectify the ergonomically related risk factors and human error components in a road crash.