Bioaccumulation and Non-carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Selected Fish Species from South Bay of Laguna Lake

  • Carmela Jhoy G. Mercado College of Food Nutrition and Dietetics, Laguna State Polytechnic University – Los Baños Campus, Laguna, Philippines
  • Liezl M. Atienza Institute of Human Nutrition and Food, College of Human Ecology, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines
  • Clarissa B. Juanico Institute of Human Nutrition and Food, College of Human Ecology, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines
  • Dinah Pura T. Depositario College of Economics and Management, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines
  • Wilma A. Hurtada Institute of Human Nutrition and Food, College of Human Ecology, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines
Keywords: Health risk, Heavy metals, Total hazard quotient (THQ), Hazard Index (HI), Nile Tilapia, Blackchin Tilapia

Abstract

Objective. The study aimed to determine the concentration of three heavy metals namely, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) present in head, stomach and muscle parts of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticu) and Blackchin Tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) collected from different sampling sites in South Bay area of Laguna Lake and evaluate its potential health risk for adult consumers.

Methods. Live samples of Nile Tilapia and Blackchin Tilapia were hand-collected from three sites of South Bay of Laguna Lake during wet season. Raw and boiled samples were prepared for analysis. Heavy metal concentrations (mg kg-1) were determined through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The potential health risk posed by more than one metal was calculated using the Total Hazard Quotient (THQ).

Results. The heavy metal detected with the highest concentration was Pb, present in Nile Tilapia. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr in both fish samples were high in the head part. Boiled samples have significantly lower concentrations of heavy metal (p<0.05) compared to raw samples. THQ values for Cd in raw fish samples were higher than the recommended level of exposure (THQ < 1.0).

Conclusion. The study revealed that cadmium is of greater concern in terms of possible adverse health effects associated with heavy metal bioaccumulation. However, the presence of other metals may further increase the risk of non-carcinogenic adverse effects. The lower health risk is predicted for boiled fish samples.

Published
2021-10-25
Section
Articles