Bioaccumulation and Non-carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Selected Fish Species from South Bay of Laguna Lake
Objective. The study aimed to determine the concentration of three heavy metals namely, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) present in head, stomach and muscle parts of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticu) and Blackchin Tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) collected from different sampling sites in South Bay area of Laguna Lake and evaluate its potential health risk for adult consumers.
Methods. Live samples of Nile Tilapia and Blackchin Tilapia were hand-collected from three sites of South Bay of Laguna Lake during wet season. Raw and boiled samples were prepared for analysis. Heavy metal concentrations (mg kg-1) were determined through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The potential health risk posed by more than one metal was calculated using the Total Hazard Quotient (THQ).
Results. The heavy metal detected with the highest concentration was Pb, present in Nile Tilapia. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr in both fish samples were high in the head part. Boiled samples have significantly lower concentrations of heavy metal (p<0.05) compared to raw samples. THQ values for Cd in raw fish samples were higher than the recommended level of exposure (THQ < 1.0).
Conclusion. The study revealed that cadmium is of greater concern in terms of possible adverse health effects associated with heavy metal bioaccumulation. However, the presence of other metals may further increase the risk of non-carcinogenic adverse effects. The lower health risk is predicted for boiled fish samples.