Characteristics and Factors Associated with Mortality of 200 COVID-19 Patients at a Philippine COVID-19 Tertiary Referral Center

  • Maria Sonia S. Salamat
  • Anna Flor G. Malundo
  • Cybele Lara R. Abad
  • Joanne Carmela M. Sandejas
  • Jose Eladio G. Planta
  • Jonnel B. Poblete
  • Johanna Patricia A. Cañal
  • Julian A. Santos
  • Marissa M. Alejandria
Keywords: COVID-19, Philippines, epidemiology, mortality


 Objectives: To describe the clinical profile and factors associated with mortality among the first 200 patients confirmed to have COVID-19 infection admitted in the University of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital (UP-PGH)

 Methodology: We conducted a retrospective review of adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted in PGH, a designated COVID-19 referral center.  Demographic, clinical data, and clinical outcomes were extracted from medical records. Frequencies and distributions of various clinical characteristics were described, and factors associated with mortality were investigated.

 Results:  Of the 200 patients in our cohort, majority were male (55.5%), and more than half (58%) were over 60 years old. Underlying co-morbid illnesses (67.5%) included hypertension (49.5%), diabetes mellitus (26.5%), and cardiovascular disease (20.5%). Most frequent presenting symptoms were cough (69.0%), fever (58.5%), or shortness of breath (53.0%). Most patients presented with mild (n=41, 20.5%) to moderate illness (n=99, 49.5%) and only 60 were considered severely (n=32, 16.0%) or critically ill (n=28, 14.0%). Many (61%) received empiric antibiotics, while 44.5% received either repurposed drugs or investigational therapies for COVID-19. Bacterial co-infection was documented in 11%, with Klebsiella pneumoniae commonly isolated. In-hospital mortality was 17.5%, which was highest for critical COVID-19 (71.4%). Mortality was observed to be higher among patients age 60 and above, those requiring oxygen, ventilatory support and ICU admission, and among those who developed acute kidney injury, acute stroke, sepsis, and nosocomial pneumonia.

 Conclusion: Our study confirms that COVID-19 affects males, older individuals and those with underlying co-morbid conditions. Empiric antimicrobial treatment was given for majority of patients, despite documentation of bacterial infection in only 11%. K. pneumoniae was commonly isolated, reflecting local epidemiology.  Mortality rate during this early period of the pandemic was high and comparable to other institutions. Factors associated with mortality were related to critical COVID-19 and are similar to other studies.