Energy Density and Satiety of Meals Based on the Healthy Food Plate Model for Filipino Adults

  • Maria Julia Golloso-Gubat
  • Edward Vincent J. Magtibay
  • Jacus S. Nacis
  • Robby Carlo A. Tan
  • Merlyn G. Tajan
  • Ermelita N. Bautista
Keywords: energy density, food plate model, fullness, ghrelin, hunger, Pinggang Pinoy, satiety


Objective. This study aimed to determine the energy density and satiety of meals based on the healthy food plate model for Filipino adults.

Methods. Thirteen healthy adult volunteers consumed breakfast test meals consisting of 1 cup go food, ½ cup grow food and 1 ½ cups glow food, following the recommended proportions in the plate model. Energy density (kcal/g) of the test meals was calculated. Feelings of hunger and fullness were assessed with 100-mm visual analogue scales (VAS) at pre-prandial (0 minute) and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 240 minutes postprandial. Ghrelin levels at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA).

Results. The test meals had an average energy density of 0.83 kcal/g. Hunger and fullness scores gradually changed with time but hunger remained significantly lower and fullness significantly higher than the pre-prandial levels at 180 minutes postprandial. Ghrelin declined after intake of the test meals and stayed significantly lower than the pre-prandial level at 240 minutes postprandial (30.21 ± 4.58 pmol/L).

Conclusion. Meals following the recommendations in the healthy food plate model for Filipino adults have low energy density and its consumption sustained short-term satiety.