Pulmonary Manifestations and Management of COVID-19 Pediatric Patients Admitted in a Tertiary Government Hospital
Background. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents with respiratory signs and symptoms in children. Presently, there are no local studies on the pulmonary manifestations and management of COVID-19 among children.
Objective. Our study aimed to identify and describe the presenting respiratory signs and symptoms, oxygenation status, radiologic findings, blood gas analysis, and pulmonary interventions among children admitted for COVID-19. We also analyzed the clinical and radiologic variables associated with mortality.
Methodology. This is a retrospective study using data obtained from a review of medical records from April 1, 2020, to June 30, 2020, at a tertiary government institution in the Philippines. All pediatric patients (0-18 years) hospitalized for probable or confirmed COVID-19 during the said time period were included in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to determine factors affecting mortality.
Results. A total of 25 pediatric patients with a mean age of 7 years old (age range: 11 days to 18 years) were admitted for COVID-19. Cough (44%) and dyspnea (24%) were the most common presenting respiratory symptoms, while tachypnea (68%), crackles (36%), and peripheral oxygen desaturation (36%) were the most common respiratory signs. Indeterminate findings for COVID-19 such as multifocal or diffuse ground-glass opacities and/or consolidations were the most common radiographic abnormalities. Invasive ventilatory support was administered to 6 cases of severe COVID-19 and 4 critical cases. There were no variables that correlated significantly with mortality.
Conclusion. Respiratory signs and symptoms were prominent in our cohort of children admitted due to COVID-19. Mechanical ventilation was required in more severe cases. Larger prospective studies may help identify variables that significantly correlate with poor outcomes among children with COVID-19.