Concentrations of Trace Elements in Bottled Water Consumed in Angono, Philippines

  • Seiji Maruyama
  • Hisaaki Kato
  • Takafumi Hirata
  • Noel R. Juban
Keywords: Philippines, Angono, bottled water, trace element, health risk


Introduction. We analyzed the concentrations of the trace elements [chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd),
cesium (Cs), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U)] in commercial bottled water consumed in the town of Angono,
Rizal province, Luzon island, Philippines to evaluate the health risks of the trace elements in drinking water. There
are some arguments that water resources available in the Philippines are heavily polluted by various materials, in
particular heavy metal elements.

Method. The concentrations of seven trace elements in commercial bottled water produced and consumed in the
Philippines were analyzed using a solution nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SN−ICP−MS).

Result. The concentrations of the trace elements except for Cs, which does not yet have a WHO guideline value,
in the locally produced bottled water were below the WHO guideline values. The Cs concentrations (<0.6 μg/L) of
the bottled water of the Philippines were generally similar to those of the bottled water produced and consumed in
other countries such as Japan, China, and Indonesia.

Conclusion. The concentrations of trace elements in bottled water consumed in Angono, Philippines can be regarded
as being at safe levels, as well as those of daily life water (i.e. tap, well, and spring water) consumed in the said town.