Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Purple Leaf Extract [Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff] Against Streptococcus mutans

  • Devi Eka Juniarti Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Tuti Kusumaningsih Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Wisnu Setyari Juliastuti Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Adioro Soetojo Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Nabilla Dara Wungsu Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Keywords: antibacterial, medicine, phytochemical, Streptococcus mutans

Abstract

Background. Streptococcus mutans is the leading cause of dental caries. One of many medicinal plants, purple leaf [Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff], which contains flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, and saponins, is a potential antibacterial agent.

Objective. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of purple leaf extract (Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff) against Streptococcus mutans.

Methods. Streptococcus mutans were suspended in several Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff extract concentrations in a BHIB medium using the dilution method so that the concentration of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.12%, 1.56%, 0.78% were obtained. Each tube was incubated for 24 hours, then subcultured in a Tryptone Yeast Extract Cystine medium in a petri dish using a spreader. Each petri dish was set for 24 hours; the growth of the colony, using CFU/mL unit, was manually calculated. The samples were then subjected to microbiological analysis. The Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test was performed to determine if the relationship between the sets of data in the treatment group is statistically significant (p<0.05).

Results. Purple leaf extract contains bioactive compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, tannin, triterpenoid/ steroid, and saponin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff against Streptococcus mutans was in concentration 3.125%, and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was in concentration 6.25%.

Conclusion. Purple Leaf Extract [Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff] has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus  mutans.

Published
2021-11-24