Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Activity of Ixora coccinea Leaf Extract in Hydrogel Formulation
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing property of the preformulated hydrogel containing the methanolic leaf extract of Ixora coccinea, as well as its acute dermal irritation using New Zealand rabbits.
Methods. Mature dried leaves of I. coccinea was subjected to extraction using maceration and was concentrated in vacuo. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose and gelatin were used to create hydrogel in which the crude extract was incorporated. Physicochemical properties of the extract and preformulated hydrogel were characterized, while its antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were determined using the agar well method and compared to the standard drug 2% w/v mupirocin ointment. A wound excision model in rats was used to determine the wound healing property of the preformulated hydrogel against povidone-iodine ointment. Lastly, animal testing was performed following the OECD Guidelines and upon approval of the IACUC Committee.
Result. The preformulated hydrogel was effective against S. aureus (p-value ≤ 0.001) but resistant to P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis. Furthermore, the wound contraction rate in groups treated with preformulated hydrogel (p-value = 0.006) is significantly higher than in groups treated with hydrogel base and povidone-iodine. Moreover, no dermal erythema and edema were observed with albino rabbits.
Conclusion. The preformulated hydrogel with I. coccinea methanolic leaf extract is non-irritating, effective against staphylococcal infections commonly found in wounds. Hence, it is a good substitute for povidone-iodine in wound treatment.