Development and Content Validation of the Adaptation Process in Academia Questionnaire for Occupational Therapy Educators
Objective. The process of adaptation in academia can best be understood and measured using valid and reliable tools. To understand how occupational therapy educators adapt to academic roles and how they use adaptation to build academic careers, the Adaptation Process in Academia Questionnaire (APA-Q) was developed. The APA-Q is a 199-item tool with four sections: academic experiences (104 items); contexts (16 items); adapting responses (13 items); and adaptation outcomes (66 items). This study described the development and the process of determining the content validity of the APA-Q.
Method. We conducted an extensive review of literature and the available faculty instruments in developing the APA-Q items. Six content experts were recruited to rate the 199-item and scale relevance of the instrument. Qualitative feedback were provided from open-ended questions. Item and scale content validity indices (I-CVI/S-CVI) were calculated. CVI and qualitative assessment informed questionnaire revisions.
Results. Content experts rated 161 of the items (81%) to be highly relevant. The I-CVI of 30 items was acceptable (0.83). Eight items were rated irrelevant (0.5-0.66).
S-CVI was excellent (0.97). In terms of constructs, experts agreed on the relevance of items (>0.80): academic experiences (99 or 95%); contexts (16 or 100%); adapting responses (12 or 92%); and adaptation outcomes (63 or 95%).
Qualitative assessment indicated a lack of clarity in some items and instructions, redundancy in some of the items, the use of jargon, and missing items. Based on I-CVI and qualitative assessment, 12 items were deleted, 13 items were revised, and 10 items were added.
Conclusion. Context experts deemed the APA-Q to be relevant. Further establishment of its construct validity and reliability is warranted.